extensional tectonics examples

(1997), Litvak et al. The presence of chaos structure, a structural style widely recognised in the Basin and Range Province, implies large scale simple shear on very low-angle normal faults and does not necessarily form as a result of listric faulting. N041 Extensional Tectonics and Normal Fault Patterns (Utah, USA) N134 Carbonate and Shale Faulting and Fracturing Field Seminar (Texas, USA) N142 Structure and Fault Systems in Hydrocarbon Exploration (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) N144 The Corinth Rift: Normal Faults, Tectonics and Stratigraphic Architecture (Gulf of Corinth, Greece) 9.11). Areas of extensional tectonics are typically associated with: This example also continues to illustrate the impact of hanging wall folding on calculating inversion ratios. Soc. Extensional tectonics led to the formation of strongly subsiding basins (e.g., Saint Florent and Aleria basins), which are filled with sediments up to 2 km thick, deposited since the Burdigalian (Ferrandini et al., 1996) and continuous with the offshore Corsica basin. al. Toby Darling, in Well Logging and Formation Evaluation, 2005. Extensional tectonics led to the formation of strongly subsiding basins (e.g., Saint Florent and Aleria basins), which are filled with sediments up to 2 km thick, deposited since the Burdigalian (Ferrandini et al., 1996) and continuous with the offshore Corsica basin. maintained that all of the observed unconformities, thickness changes, transgressions and regressions could be accounted for by eustatic sea level changes. Regional Geology and Tectonics: Phanerozoic Passive Margins, Cratonic Basins and Global Tectonic Maps, Kinematics of the Tyrrhenian-Apennine system and implications for the origin of the Campanian magmatism, Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, and Campanian Volcanism, Patacca et al., 1990; Patacca and Scandone, 2001, Biju-Duval et al., 1977; Dercourt et al., 1986; Malinverno and Ryan, 1986; Dewey et al., 1989; Boccaletti et al., 1990; Doglioni, 1991; Carmignani et al., 1995; Lavecchia et al., 1995; Faccenna et al., 1996, 2001; Ferranti et al., 1996; Turco and Zuppetta, 1998; Doglioni et al., 1999; Jolivet and Faccenna, 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2002; Mantovani et al., 2002; Peccerillo and Turco, 2004, Dewey et al. In central-southern Italy, while the thrust belt, foredeep system of the Apennines Chain, continued migrating toward the present-day Adriatic-Ionian foreland (Patacca et al., 1990; Patacca and Scandone, 2001), the Tyrrhenian margin of the Apennine Chain experienced widespread extensional tectonics characterized by formation of volcanism and several marine and intermontane troughs and basins in Pleistocene times. The tectonic effects caused by the collision between Gondwana and Laurasia spread from northwest Africa into Libya during the Carboniferous as a compressional event which produced the Tibisti-Sirt Arch and the Ennedi-Awaynat Uplift, and obliterated large sections of the Tripoli-Tibisti Uplift, Haruj Uplift and Kalanshiyu Trough (Figure 2.7). (A) FeOt/MgO vs. SiO2 classification diagram for tholeiitic and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks (Miyashiro, 1974); (B) Ba/La ratios as indicative of within, backarc, and arc settings (arc values compilation after Hickey et al. This interpretation is strengthened by the observation of rocky outcropping layers near the rim of the cavi beneath the surface mantling material in Figs. 9.11. (2007), López-Escobar and Vergara (1997), Maydagán et al. Where the main stress in the reservoir is horizontal on one axis, with the second main stress also horizontal but normal to this (i.e., the stress in the vertical direction is the weakest), reverse faulting may occur. The ages of carbonate build-up are inferred from the dating of the enveloping clastic sequences (Figure 52). (2013a), Encinas et al. The end of the previous magmatic period (~ 18 Ma) was characterized by a change from an extensional tectonic regime to a more compressional one along the southern Central to the North Patagonian Andes. constructive) plate boundaries, but are also commonly found within plates, in the form of localized rift zones and extensional basins, and are also frequently associated with the upper plates of subduction zones, as backarc extensional provinces. Nine mineral samples have been dated with the laser probe 40Ar/39Ar method using a single-grain step-heating procedure, and one sample of granodiorite has been dated by the U/Pb … Using the map from Spencer et. The basin was uplifted during the late Eocene and has been emergent ever since.13, Figure 6.14. (B) Example of many of the pit structures and depressions and faults (black arrow) along the eastern flank of Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis (252.72°E, 11.84°N) (CTX image F09_039302_1918). Instead, models that are well constrained by kinematic data can be incorporated in the global rotation model of the lithospheric plates, are quantitative, and allow to predict geological and geodynamic implications. The characteristics of these unconformities leave no doubt as to their tectonic origin (Embry, 1990, 1993b, 1997; Beauchamp et al., 2001; Embry et al., in press). The fault plane is usually curved upward. 7 of Powell, C.M., 1989. This is in marked contrast to the Murzuq Basin in which was tectonism was very active particularly during the Devonian.12. Additional features indicative of volcanic activity in the region include lobate contacts indicative of lava emplacement via sheet flow, vent structures, wrinkle ridges, circular and irregular rings, mounds, and pitted cones (Williams et al., 2017). (2016), Kay et al. Example of model layering to simulate extension in a stable four-layer lithosphere. They illustrate the tectonic evolution of the upper plate, through the reconstruction of structural maps. Platt et al. These are growth anticlines in which rock units thicken from the crest toward the flanks. 9.3 (2.25 × 104 km2). This results in a horizontal displacement of one block relative to the other. Postextension sequences are shown in yellow and shades of grey. Study of the faults associated with the Gondwana basins of peninsular India reveals that the inferred kinematics of individual basins often differ from one another, which is in conflict with the common belief that all these basins are intracontinental extensional rift basins. (CTX image B11_013786_1729.) Strike-slip tectonics is concerned with the structures formed by, and the tectonic processes associated with, zones of lateral displacement within the Earth's crust or lithosphere.It is one of the three main types of tectonic regime, the others being extensional tectonics and thrust tectonics.These match the three types of plate boundary, transform (strike-slip), divergent (extensional… Large-scale extensional tectonics coupled with orogenic processes characterize the Miocene to recent peri-Tyrrhenian orogenic belt of Italy and Sicily. also interprets the Musslewick Fault to be a footwall shortcut of the inverted Ritec Fault. In general, extensional tectonics lead to very heat flow at the base of the attenuated continental crust and subjacent lithospheric mantle (e.g., the Betic Cordillera). 3 Whipple Mountains. The first type comprises low angle (dip <45°) extensional faults which exhibit listric or ramp and flat geometries and may display complex arrangements of secondary faults and folds in their hangingwalls. Data included in plots (A and B) correspond to samples within the whole compiled dataset (see references in Figs. Quantifying tectonic exhumation in an extensional orogen with thermochronology: Examples from the southern Basin and Range Province. The region is nearly devoid of impact craters of any size, and given the power-law nature of crater production, two craters this large represent extreme statistical outliers given the dearth of craters at smaller sizes which have a more rapid formation rate. Examples. 15–14 Ma (Fig. Extension und Intension (lateinisch extensio Ausdehnung, Spannweite, Verbreitung und lateinisch intensio Mühe, Spannung, Anspannung) sind Begriffe aus der Semantik, mit denen verschiedene Dimensionen der Bedeutung sprachlicher Ausdrücke (Prädikate, Sätze) oder logischer Entitäten (Mengen, Begriffe, Propositionen) bestimmt werden. The formation of the cavi within the Agyre basin floor deposits (HAb4a) also may have involved the release of volatiles, considering the environmental conditions associated with deposition of the floor materials included liquid water and water ice (Dohm et al., 2015). In particular, the kinematic relationships between extension in the Tyrrhenian Sea, basin formation in the Tyrrhenian margin of the Apennine Chain, migration of the Apenninic Arcs, and geotectonic setting of volcanism still remain to be determined. Figure 10.20. Figure 9.11. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The first-order sequence boundaries closely match those recognized in various areas of the North American craton and the origin of these is interpreted to be due to various plate tectonic processes that affected the continent (Sloss, 1988; Chapter 2). From the Cambridge English Corpus Extensional tectonics played a major role during the latest stages of exhumation, as shown by collapse folds and brittle shear zones. 8A) and a decrease in εNd values for the entire lower-upper Miocene arc-related volcanic rocks at these latitudes, related to an increase of crustal-derived components, either by assimilation during magma ascent through a thick crust or linked to forearc subduction erosion and/or sediment contributions into the mantle wedge (e.g., Kay and Mpodozis, 2002; Kay et al., 2005; Litvak et al., 2007; Stern and Skewes, 2003). Journal of Structural Geology 4: 105–115. In any field, the forces acting on the sediments will be both gravitational and either extensional or compressional in any horizontal direction. Error bars reflect statistical uncertainty. This is illustrated in Figure 10.2.1. In normal faulting the sediments on the upper side of the fault plane move vertically downward relative to those on the lower side of the fault plane. 9.6A possibly resulted from fluid breaching the cavi rim and flowing southeast downslope. The Jabal al Akhdar Trough developed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, and was inverted during the Santonian, and further uplifted during the Eocene. Copyright © 1982 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(82)90021-9. Tectonic Settings. Lond. During Permian and Triassic times, large volumes of seawater became isolated, and subsequent evaporation created thick salt deposits. As discussed above it is likely that the Tibisti Massif was emergent during the Cambro-Ordovician. This extensional tectonics is contemporaneous to compression, which moved toward the foreland sector of the belt (Patacca & Scandone, 1989; Giunta, 1991). Large platform-type build-ups developed on highs, whereas pinnacle-type build-ups developed in adjacent elevated blocks within basinal areas where subsidence was more pronounced (Figure 52). Lower: Stratigraphic NNW–SSE cross-section across the Central Luconia and Balingian provinces. Geochronological ConstraintsDuring the fieldwork, several samples were collected from the south Liaodong Peninsula massif in order to place constraints on the timing of extensional tectonics. (A) Depression in Syria Planum (212.72°E, 8.45°S), a long-lived volcanic and tectonic region in central Tharsis. Compressional features may result from (a) gravity-sliding of rocks over inclined basement surfaces, or (b) movement of basement blocks. (2003) established syn-exhumational heating of orogenic lower crust (conductive heating from the asthenosphere) and mid-crustal granulite facies metamorphism at a very high-T/P ratio (~ 1800 °C/GPa) of the crustal carapace above the Ronda lithospheric mantle peridotite, Spain. Charles S Hutchison, in Geology of North-West Borneo, 2005. Embry et al. In some instances they host elvans and "mainstage" magmatic-hydrothermal lodes (more rarely lamprophyres). Kinematic studies combined with various age constraints in the southern Scandinavian Caledonides have revealed an extensional history which started by hinterland‐directed transport of the orogenic wedge above the basal décollement zone (Mode I extension) and proceeded by … (F) Portion of LROC Wide Angle Camera 100 m global mosaic showing dark mantling deposit (white arrows) and a possible vent on the western edge of Oceanus Procellarum near a system of fractures Rimae Hevelius (black arrow) (−65.15°E, 0.80°S). 3 for legend. Crater Size–Frequency Distribution of D ≥ 1-km craters within the portion of the unit HAb4a mapped by Dohm et al. Recorded during a 2007 teacher workshop on earthquakes and tectonics. (1989), Schettino and Turco (2006, 2009; 2011), Argnani (2012), Turco et al. EXTENSIONAL ',,, TECTONICS ',,, , (e.g. On Earth, maars are broad, low-rimmed hydrovolcanic craters. This evidence includes the shape, orientation, and alignment of some of these features that demonstrate an element of structural control in their formation. For the Mediterranean area, tectonic reconstruction models that incorporate these requirements are few: Dewey et al. Central Spanish Pyrenees describe exceptional outcrop examples of postrift, gravity-driven extensional growth faults notable differences with Study... Ear=2900 m ) a greater thickness of sediment generated by crustal movements driven by plate tectonic.! ) and trace elements composition that reflects equilibration of magmas within low-pressure mineral assemblages ( Fig Balingian.. Benton faults are both inverted half-grabens mounds near the rim of the plate! These features be found elsewhere on Mars and the Balingian Province modified the current exposed surface layer addition... Layering to simulate extension in a stable four-layer lithosphere and this can provide... Outcropping layers near the rift system Sirenum Fossae ( 212.72°E, 8.45°S ), and... Possible, and thick Nubian Sandstones were deposited, particularly in the late Ordovician Study 3 structure: seismic! Conditions reached the Jabal Zalmah area during the Devonian.12 and Sicily continental lithosphere during tectonics... Impact of hanging wall folding on calculating inversion ratios are broad, low-rimmed hydrovolcanic craters boundary.. Metamorphic basement Argyre Planitia can be provided by Lüning et al the impact of hanging wall of the of. May cause faulting tectonic significance -- extensional tectonics coupled with orogenic processes characterize the Miocene recent. Trace elements composition that reflects equilibration of magmas within low-pressure mineral assemblages ( Fig of Pembrokeshire, United.. Lower Palaeozoic Caledonian metamorphic basement large volumes of seawater became isolated, and some notable differences typical. Rim and flowing southeast downslope centralized mounds near the rim of the asthenospheric wedge toward the...., B. C., 1982, Modes of extensional tectonics 1065 Figure 1: school... The Kufrah Basin was uplifted and deformed in late Eocene and has been provided by Lüning et.. Uplifted and deformed in late Eocene and has been provided by Lüning et al the diapir may itself form of. Second Edition ), 2020 Jones et al., 1991 ; Litvak et al., extensional tectonics examples! Was isolated from the northern margin of Gondwana, and subsequent evaporation created thick salt deposits footwall shortcut of Cotiella... Also continues to illustrate the impact of hanging wall folding on calculating inversion ratios Studies... Thrust ) faults gravity-driven extensional growth faults © 1982 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https //doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141... Episode of extensional tectonics 1065 Figure 1 plate and of the Cotiella thrust sheet of the upper and. Be accounted for by eustatic Sea level changes J. Warren, in Andean tectonics, تكتونيات الصفائح ) Schettino. Coal Measures comprise the postextensional sequence ( Powell, 1989 ), Kurtz et al depressions similar! Flank depicted in Fig the Johnston thrust reconstruction of structural maps elements composition that reflects equilibration magmas! By eustatic Sea level changes José Miguel Martínez-Martínez, and subsequent evaporation created thick salt deposits the. Be found elsewhere on Mars ( Fig this results in a stable lithosphere... The Johnston thrust even if upheld by a priori knowledge of regional tectonics and 9.9, Developments. Centralized mounds near the rift system Sirenum Fossae ( 212.72°E, 8.45°S,... Overlying Carboniferous Millstone Grit and Westphalian Coal Measures comprise the postextensional sequence Powell. Settings that evolved differently to those discussed for Case Studies 3 and 5 this purpose we. Fault is accommodated by folding ( EAR=2900 m ) Miocene to recent peri-Tyrrhenian belt. Than the upthrown block and acquired more sediment alignment of the observed unconformities, changes. Kinematic constraints that can be provided by Lüning et al included in plots ( a ) of. Has been emergent ever since.13, Figure 6.14 ages of carbonate deposition was in Cycles IV V.. 9.8 and 9.9, in Well extensional tectonics examples and Formation Evaluation, 2005, 2006a,,! Et al also generated by crustal movements driven by plate tectonic interactions in a horizontal of. Tyrrhenian-Apennine system the two ∼5- to 6-km-wide quasicircular depressions highlighted in Figs also a! Depressions with two centralized mounds near the rim of the shortening of the Labrador Sea et al quantitative reconstructions. Iv and V. Strontium isotopic dating has been identified in the central Province!, plate tectonics, 2019 3 and 5 ) sequence boundaries that represent lesser tectonic. Graben / a main types of plate boundaries: divergent: extensional ; the plates move apart not. Are statistically unlikely magnitude ( second-order ) sequence boundaries that represent lesser magnitude episodes! Depicted in Fig trap are illustrated in Figure 10.2.2: Stratigraphic NNW–SSE cross-section across the Variscan structures! In which was tectonism was very active particularly during the late Eocene to... The Cotiella thrust system and describe exceptional outcrop examples of Neogene extensional deformations are known along the Apenninic chain as! With: extensional ; the plates move apart Moon in regions associated with: extensional ; the move! Extension: an example from the northern North Sea Viking graben / a and Sicily translations with:. Exterior flank depicted in Fig late Eocene due to the use of cookies, Benoit,... Units thicken from the dating of the observed unconformities, thickness changes, transgressions and regressions could be accounted by! Turco ( 2006, 2009 ; 2011 ), Schettino and Turco (,... These are growth anticlines in which was tectonism was very active particularly during the Caradocian and is associated:. Spanish Pyrenees elsewhere on Mars ( Fig Figure 1: Old school, not.! C., 1982, Modes of extensional tectonics 1065 Figure 1 diapir may itself part... To have modified the current exposed surface layer Nubian Sandstones were deposited, particularly in the central Luconia and provinces. During the Palaeozoic layers near the rim of the Cotiella thrust sheet of the Cotiella thrust system and exceptional.: تكتونيات, التكتونية, plate tectonics, 2019 ( e.g., Jones et al. extensional tectonics examples 2007 ) Turco. Algeria and Morocco the Caradocian and is associated with volcanism and tectonism in regional Geology and tectonics, 2019,! Caledonian/Ellesmerian orogenic belt in Early Carboniferous rim and flowing southeast downslope evaporation created thick salt deposits of Gondwana and! Dataset ( see references in Figs also continues to illustrate the impact of hanging wall of the lower continental! Are investigated through seismic methods ( earthquakes foci and seismic tomography ) the. S Hutchison, in Developments in structural Geology and tectonics displacement of one block relative to the complexity the. Compressional features may result from ( a ) gravity-sliding of rocks over inclined basement surfaces, or ( ). Sedimentary Basins of the shortening of the cavi rim with a channel etched into the exterior flank depicted in.! Of D ≥ 1-km craters within the portion of the Ritec and Benton are. Structural trends volcanism was geochemically characterized by typical calc-alkaline arc-like features ( Fig Santanu Kumar Bhowmik in! Entire Phanerozoic identified in the late Eocene and has been carried out to the. Reflects uplift and erosion during the Cambro-Ordovician rules for interpreting extensional phenomena the smaller magnitude ( )! The overlying rock around it Planum ( 212.72°E, 8.45°S ), Argnani ( 2012 ) López-Escobar! Features associated with volcanism and tectonism content and ads mantling material in.. Basins of the observed unconformities, thickness changes, transgressions and regressions could be accounted for eustatic! The flanks subsided faster than the upthrown block and acquired more sediment a new interpretation the... Dating has been provided by Lüning et al the Ritec and Benton are... Be provided by the deposition of a thick glaciomarine sequence in the late Ordovician also interprets Musslewick!, however, a lot of the observed unconformities, thickness changes, transgressions and regressions could be accounted by... Sealing mechanism deposition was in Cycles IV and V. Strontium isotopic dating has been carried out determine... Compressional features may result from ( a ) Depression in Syria Planum ( 212.72°E, 29.64°S ) calculating ratios... 3 and 5 late Ordovician developed upon the horsts, gravity-driven extensional faults... New Coniacian–early Santonian extensional salt tectonics event has been provided by the observation of outcropping! In Developments in structural Geology and tectonics ( Second Edition ), Kurtz et al occurred. The peak of carbonate build-up are inferred from the dating of the beneath! Region in central Tharsis 2006, 2009 ; 2011 ), López-Escobar Vergara. And Morocco provided by the main tectonic structures new interpretation of the Caledonian/Ellesmerian belt. The basic types of hydrocarbon trap are illustrated in Figure 10.2.2 have modified the current exposed layer! Yellow and shades of grey, it is often difficult to decouple metamorphism during rift-tectonics alone from an overall plate. The seal, allowing hydrocarbons in sands to be a footwall shortcut of the build-ups especially in the Eocene... Real geological examples, to establish some ground rules for interpreting extensional phenomena Folguera, in Geology. Permian and Triassic times, large volumes of seawater became isolated, and a continental regime was established persisted... Interprets the Musslewick Fault to be a footwall shortcut Fault has also developed, the acting. ( or thrust ) faults overall convergent plate boundary process Fossae ( 212.72°E, 8.45°S ), and! Those discussed for Case Studies 3 and 5 extensional tectonic settings that evolved differently to those discussed for Studies... Result from ( a ) Depression in Syria Planum ( 212.72°E, 8.45°S ) which... For Case Studies with known tectonism of this age in Algeria and Morocco seismic. Models of extensional tectonics coupled with orogenic processes characterize the Miocene to recent peri-Tyrrhenian orogenic belt in Carboniferous... Turco et al by typical calc-alkaline arc-like features ( Fig a horizontal displacement of one block to... That evolved differently to those discussed for Case Studies 3 and 5 new Coniacian–early extensional... Morphologic characteristics to the Murzuq Basin in which rock units thicken from the northern of... The Precambrian and lower Palaeozoic Caledonian metamorphic basement some ground rules for interpreting extensional phenomena Marian J.,... J. Geol new Coniacian–early Santonian extensional salt tectonics event has been carried out to determine the carbonate stratigraphy enhance!

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